Oxygen (Total 439101 Papers Found)

In many oceanic regions, growth of phytoplankton is nitrogen-limited because fixation of N2 cannot make up for the removal of fixed inorganic nitrogen (NH4+, NO2-, and NO3-) by anaerobic microbial processes. Globally, 30-50% of the total nitrogen loss occurs in oxygen-minimum zones (OMZs) and is commonly attributed to denitrification (reduction of nitrate to N2 by heterotrophic bacteria). Here, we show that instead, the anammox process (the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium by nitrite to yield N2) ...
Concerns with the environmental and health risk of widely distributed, commonly used nanoparticles are increasing. Nanosize titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used in air and water remediation and in numerous products designed for direct human use and consumption. Its effectiveness in deactivating pollutants and killing microorganisms relates to photoactivation and the resulting free radical activity. This property, coupled with its multiple potential exposure routes, indicates that nanosize TiO2 could ...
Using high-resolution positron emission tomography and the oxygen 15 continuous inhalation method, we examined the changes in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, blood flow, blood volume, and oxygen extraction fraction as a function of age in 25 optimally healthy, unmedicated volunteers who ranged in age from 20 to 68 years. Subjects were strictly selected for absence of cerebrovascular risk factors, dementia, or mental disorders; they had neither biological nor clinical abnormalities, and no foc ...
  • Hye-Kyung Na, Y. -J. Surh,
  • Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2008
Frequent consumption of green tea, one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages, has been known to protect against development of various cancers according to numerous experimental and several population-based studies. Molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive effects exerted by green tea and its components have been extensively investigated. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major green tea polyphenol, has been shown to induce expression of glutathione S-transferase, gluta ...
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are of great commercial interest. Theoretically, during processing and handling of CNT and in abrasion processes on composites containing CNT, inhalable CNT particles might be set free. For hazard assessment, we performed a 90-day inhalation toxicity study with a multiwall CNT (MWCNT) material (Nanocyl NC 7000) according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 413. Wistar rats were head-nose exposed for 6 h/day, 5 days/week, 13 weeks, total ...
Recently, we have shown that an untrained respiratory system does limit the endurance of submaximal exercise (64% peak oxygen consumption) in normal sedentary subjects. These subjects were able to increase breathing endurance by almost 300% and cycle endurance by 50% after isolated respiratory training. The aim of the present study was to find out if normal, endurance trained subjects would also benefit from respiratory training. Breathing and cycle endurance as well as maximal oxygen consumptio ...
BACKGROUND The independent effects of diet- or exercise-induced weight loss on the reduction of obesity and related comorbid conditions are not known. The effects of exercise without weight loss on fat distribution and other risk factors are also unclear. OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of equivalent diet- or exercise-induced weight loss and exercise without weight loss on subcutaneous fat, visceral fat skeletal muscle mass, and insulin sensitivity in obese men. DESIGN Randomized, control ...
Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, shows substantial anti-tumor activity in a variety of tumor cell lines, is in phase I, II, and III clinical trials and has recently been approved for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma. The sequence of events leading to apoptosis following proteasome inhibition by bortezomib is unclear. Bortezomib effects on components of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway were examined: generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alteration in the mitochondrial ...
The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE1) plays a central role in the DNA base excision repair pathway (BER) in two distinct ways. As an AP endonuclease, it initiates repair of AP sites in DNA produced either spontaneously or after removal of uracil and alkylated bases in DNA by monofunctional DNA glycosylases. Alternatively, by acting as a 3'-phosphoesterase, it initiates repair of DNA strand breaks with 3'-blocking damage, which are produced either directly by reactive ...
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors and neonatal outcomes associated with the early failure of "bubble" nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). STUDY DESIGN Following resuscitation and stabilization at delivery, a cohort of 261 consecutively inborn infants (birth weight < or = 1250 g) was divided into three groups based on the initial respiratory support modality and outcome at 72 hours of age: "ventil ...
Elderly patients are more prone than younger patients to develop cerebral desaturation because of the reduced physiologic reserve that accompanies aging. To evaluate whether monitoring cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) minimizes intraoperative cerebral desaturation, we prospectively monitored rSO(2) in 122 elderly patients undergoing major abdominal surgery with general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated to an intervention group (the monitor was visible and rSO(2) was maintained at & ...
In vivo isotope-fractionation factors were determined for hydrogen and oxygen between plasma water samples and samples of urine, saliva, respiratory water vapor, and carbon dioxide in 20 normal adults. The isotope-fractionation factors ranged from 0.944 to 1.039 for 2H in breath water vapor and for 18O in breath CO2, respectively. When corrected for isotope fractionation, the 2H- and 18O-dilution spaces determined from urine, saliva, respiratory water, and CO2 were within -0.10 +/- 1.09 kg (mean ...
8-Hydroxyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (also referred to as 8-hydroxyguanine [8-OH-dG] or 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine), a common DNA adduct resulting from injury to DNA via reactive oxygen species, affects the in vitro methylation of nearby cytosine moieties by the human DNA methyltransferase. The exact position of 8-OH-deoxyguanosine relative to a CpG dinucleotide appears important to this effect. Our data indicate that 8-OH-deoxyguanosine diminishes the ability of the methyltransferase to methylate a targe ...
The aerobic catabolism of nicotinic acid (NA) is considered a model system for degradation of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds, some of which are major environmental pollutants; however, the complete set of genes as well as the structural-functional relationships of most of the enzymes involved in this process are still unknown. We have characterized a gene cluster (nic genes) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 responsible for the aerobic NA degradation in this bacterium and when expressed in heter ...
Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CO dehydrogenase) from Rhodospirillum rubrum was shown to be an oxygen-sensitive, nickel, iron-sulfur, and zinc-containing protein that was induced by carbon monoxide (CO). The enzyme was purified 212-fold by heat treatment, ion-exchange, and hydroxylapatite chromatography and preparative gel electrophoresis. The purified protein, active as a monomer of Mr = 61,800, existed in two forms that were comprised of identical polypeptides and differed in metal content. Fo ...
Sir: We report a rare case of iatrogenic sepsis in which the kinetics of procalcitonin (PCT) after injection of gram-negative bacteria are described for the first time. Since the original publication in The Lancet [1] there has been growing evidence that elevated PCT levels in the absence of hypercalcitoninemia are specific markers of the severity of the host response in patients with bacterial or fungal infection [2-4]. Rapid PCT increase within 2-4 h after intravenous endotoxin injection at a ...
Oxidative stress, the result of cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), has been implicated in a number of diseases of the eye. Exposure of eye tissues (e.g. the cornea and retina) to oxidative stress over time has been hypothesized to underlie the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and maturity onset cataract formation. Light-induced free radicals can damage the eye, and alterations in the antioxidant defenses of the eye have been suggested to play a role in the ...
We have extended the tunneling ionization model of Ammosov-Delone-Krainov ~ADK! for atoms to diatomic molecules by considering the symmetry property and the asymptotic behavior of the molecular electronic wave function. The structure parameters of several molecules needed for calculating the ionization rates using this molecular ADK model have been obtained. The theory is applied to calculate the ratios of ionization signals for diatomic molecules with their companion atoms that have nearly iden ...
OBJECTIVES To estimate the extent of genomic DNA damage and killing of lymphocytes by reactive oxygen intermediates in autoimmune diseases. METHODS 8-Oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a promutagenic DNA lesion induced by reactive oxygen intermediates, was measured by high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrochemical detection, in hydrolysates of DNA which had been extracted from lymphocyte and polymorphonuclear leucocyte fractions of human blood. In addition, human primar ...
BACKGROUND Cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co(3)O(4)NPs) are increasingly recognized for their utility in biological applications, magnetic resonance imaging, and drug delivery. However, little is known about the toxicity of Co(3)O(4)NPs in human cells. METHODS We investigated the possible mechanisms of genotoxicity induced by Co(3)O(4)NPs in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, apoptosis, and DNA d ...
OBJECTIVES Acute kidney injury develops in a large proportion of patients after cardiac surgery because of the low cardiac output syndrome. The inodilator levosimendan increases cardiac output after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, but a detailed analysis of its effects on renal perfusion, glomerular filtration, and renal oxygenation in this group of patients is lacking. We therefore evaluated the effects of levosimendan on renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal oxygen c ...
Manganese is an essential nutrient for humans that has to be maintained at proper levels for normal brain functioning. However, manganese also acts as a toxicant to the brain, and several studies have linked exposure to excessive manganese to neurotoxicity in adults. A recent report has suggested that ingesting high doses of manganese via drinking water can impede intellectual functions in children. It is known that during development, the nervous system is particularly vulnerable to different t ...
BACKGROUND Infants with cardiac disease or prematurity are at risk for severe illness caused by respiratory syncytial virus. Immune globulin with a high titer of antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus may offer infants and young children at risk protection from this serious, common respiratory illness. METHODS We studied 249 infants and young children (mean age, eight months) who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia due to prematurity (n = 102), congenital heart disease (n = 87), or prematur ...
This study was performed to investigate the effect of training under simulated hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia training was integrated into the normal training schedule of 12 endurance trained cyclists. Athletes were randomly assigned to two groups and performed three additional training bouts per week for six weeks on a bicycle ergometer. One group (HG) trained at the anaerobic threshold under hypoxic conditions (corresponding to an altitude of 3200 m) while the control group (NG) trained at the sa ...
This investigation examines the effects of vertical and horizontal loading on the O2 intake (VO2) response of children (n = 8) and adults (n = 8) to treadmill running. In unloaded running, the children required a significantly greater VO2 (P less than 0.001) than the adults [mean difference 7 ml.kg-1.min-1 (18.5%)]. There was no significant difference in the VO2 response of the children and the adults to either vertical or horizontal loading. Vertical loading with 5 and 10% of body mass did not ...
AIM Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent cell type that can differentiate into non-hematopoietic cells, such as adipocytes. Adipocyte tissue is central to the regulation of energy balance. Two functionally different types of fat are present in mammals. White adipose tissue is the primary site for triglyceride storage, while brown adipose tissue is specialized in energy expenditure. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) controls several aspects ...
Numerous studies over the last 25 years have established that the extrinsic PsbO, PsbP and PsbQ proteins of Photosystem II play critically important roles in maintaining optimal manganese, calcium and chloride concentrations at the active site of Photosystem II. Chemical or genetic removal of these components induces multiple and profound defects in Photosystem II function and oxygen-evolving complex stability. Recently, a number of studies have indicated possible additional roles for these prot ...
Short-term (24h) experiments were performed to examine the effect of anthracene (ANT) on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cw92 grown in a batch culture system aerated with 2.5% CO(2). At concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 5.6 microM, ANT inhibited the growth of population in a concentration-dependent manner and EC(50) calculated amounted to 1.6 microM. At concentrations from 0.7 to 4.2 microM ANT stimulated respiration and inhibited the intensity of photosynthesis but did not affect chlorophyll content ...
The photodegradation and biodegradability have been investigated for four non-biodegradable commercial azo dyes, Reactive YellowKD-3G, Reactive Red 15, Reactive Red 24, Cationic Blue X-GRL, an indicator. Methyl Orange, and one industrial wool textile wastewater, using TiO2 suspensions irradiated with a medium pressure mercury lamp. The color removal of dyes solution and dyeing wastewater reached to above 90% within 20-30 min. of photocatalytic treatment. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was found ...
Accumulating evidence suggests that protein tyrosine phosphorylation-based signaling pathways are under the regulation of reactive oxygen species. Although protein tyrosine phosphatases are directly regulated by reversible oxidation, it is not clear whether protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are also directly regulated by reduction/oxidation (redox). In this study we report a mechanism of direct oxidative inactivation specific for the PTKs in the Src and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) fam ...
The aim of this work was to establish whether cryopreservation procedure can trigger the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in selected sperm populations. Semen samples were obtained from 45 subjects attending our Department of Medical Pathophysiology. Motile sperm suspensions were obtained by swim-up in Tyrode's salt solution. After dilution with TEST yolk buffer freezing medium, they were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. In addition to motility assessment, in basal and freeze/thaw co ...
Endothelial cell activation and dysfunction are involved in the pathophysiology of ARDS. Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) may be a useful marker of endothelial dysfunction and damage but have been poorly studied in ARDS. We hypothesized that the CEC count may be elevated in patients with sepsis-related ARDS compared to those with sepsis without ARDS. ARDS was defined according to the Berlin consensus definition. The study population included 17 patients with moderate or severe ARDS, 9 with m ...
Vertebrate hemoglobins are tetramers made of two pairs of alpha and beta subunits each containing a hydrophobic pocket where a heme molecule binds tightly and allows for the reversible binding of oxygen. Both tertiary and quaternary structures are ideally suited for the loading and unloading of oxygen necessary for the metabolic requirements of the organisms. Starting from a single ancestor hemoglobin subunit, evolutionary processes have led to heterologous tetramers exhibiting a moderate oxygen ...
The endothelial lining of the vasculature forms the physical barrier between the blood and underlying tissues. Junctions between adjacent endothelial cells are dynamically modulated to sustain vascular homeostasis and to support the transendothelial migration of leukocytes during inflammation. A variety of factors initiate intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the opening and resealing of junctional complexes. This review focuses on three primary signaling pathways initiated within endo ...